Idea 1: Zero-based Configuration - Carrier Based
Any mobile phone would have to register to a cell tower that is in range. So any carrier would be able to see the people (mobiles) in range and provide an estimate of congestion in certain areas at certain times. The result is an approximation of the person's location because towers cover a radius. (more on this below)
The beauty of this is that there no additions or modifications to be done to carrier's systems. They already have this info and it's just a matter of saving the data periodically and then the data is plotted over a map of Kuwait.
Further fine-tuning on the location of people can be done through the usage of triangulation methods. A cell tower sees a mobile even if it's not registered with it, thus if you have multiple towers one can approximate the user's location based on the distance from each tower.
Idea 2: Image-processing Method
Most if not all traffic lights have a live-feed camera on top of them. Capturing an image just before the traffic light becomes green would give the most number of cars waiting. Using image-processing methods, a program could identify the number of cars.
If images are processed properly, the result is more accurate than the one in Idea 1, and it would indicate which streets are congested at what times.
Once you have data for a whole year, or two, you can tell during a certain month or during special occasions which streets are mostly congested, how people react and which are the best alternative routes to take.
The data can be plugged into simulation software and government can simulate training sessions for traffic police, special forces, army, ambulances, building new streets and highways, ...etc.
The point of these systems isn't only for the government to know where congestions are. They already know this. If these were available to the public, then people could avoid congestions and effectively reduce its cumulative effect.
I have addressed traffic monitoring in a previous post using a different method, which provides Internet access as well as providing congestion info.
People can login to basic website and show a map with congested areas (possibly suggest an alternative route) using their mobile phones, or other means.